Monaco associated itself fully with the impetus given by the Millennium Assembly. The income from the Casino, for instance, constituted only 4 per cent of public moneys. The rest was the product of personal taxes and income from public property. While Monaco depended greatly on tourism, it only accounted only for 10 per cent of business. Some 40 per cent was the product of local and international trading, banking, and high technology. Rather than a paradise for the lucky few, it had all the characteristics of a highly developed country, providing many jobs in the region. It had been suggested that the Principality was too easy on certain criminal activities, he said.
Monaco had, however, consistently combated criminality. All foreign activity required in-depth investigations. There was permanent monitoring. Appropriate legislation to combat money laundering was the same as in neighbouring countries. Monaco had an information and investigation service that made sure that all information came before the courts, he said.
The Principality was often thought of as a tax haven, but although there was no income tax, there were other taxes such as the valued-added tax. Monaco was not trying to compete with anyone. As a small State, Monaco focused on a few domains at the international level, he continued. One of its priorities in that regard was humanitarian action and social development.
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On 26 June, the Crown Prince of Monaco had signed the two protocols concerning the sale of children for prostitution and children in armed conflict. Monaco also contributed to development at the public level and to the support of non-governmental organizations, which were very active in the Principality.
Environmental factors had been of concern to Monaco as well, he said. The Principality would take initiatives addressing those concerns. Monaco would also be taking action in all appropriate domains to combat scourges like terrorism and the flow of illegal money. He said that Monaco was a sovereign State, which was demonstrated by its participation in international organizations.
Today, 33 of the 48 countries classified as least-developed were African.
Debate on Globalization: Threat or Opportunity?
As Africa was the least-developed region in the world, it was important that the international community assist it to find an efficient and substantive solution. In several countries, as a result of the disease, the labour force had decreased and the number of orphans had increased, having a widespread effect in both the economic and social sector.
International assistance was also needed to deal with the pandemic of malaria.
Today, malaria had caused the death of one person in the world every 30 seconds. Unfortunately, the debt burden was particularly heavy in Africa. Industrialized countries were also urged to take appropriate measures favouring the region, making it possible for it to have a meaningful role in the new international economic order. He expressed his gratitude to the United Nations Development Programme UNDP for its assistance and initiatives, but was concerned at the continuing decrease of funds available to the agency.
It would be helpful to, when dealing with the questions of the economic order, if multinational companies were part of the dialogue, he said. The role of multinational companies in the new global economy could not be underestimated. The African region suffered from the bloodiest conflicts in the world, he said. Those conflicts had led to a disproportionate amount of refugees.
It was clear that the conflicts in Africa were receiving less international attention than conflicts in other regions. The Security Council should pay equal attention to all conflicts, irrespective of geographical situation. In order for peacekeeping to have a meaning, the mandates of missions must be clear, effective and credible. He said the Organization of African Unity OAU had spent several years focusing on peacekeeping and prevention mechanisms.
This had resulted in the idea to set up an operational and efficient African peacekeeping force, which would dissuade subversive groups. The many conflicts in Africa seriously affected the chances of development and African unity. It was hoped that the recent decision to transform the OAU into the African Union would boost the region through the economic and political integration necessary for development.
Evaluating how successful the Organization was in its work might be approached in a number of ways; however, the true measure was how it had transformed the lives of individual people in all countries. With the onset of globalization it must be ensured that all enjoyed its benefits. The information technology revolution had brought people from around the world closer to each other, underscoring the principle of universality, he said. It had shown how national decisions and policies affected people in other parts of the globe.
Latvia believed that those international implications should also be reflected in wider representation in the Security Council. If the United Nations were to reflect the new political and economic realities, it must demonstrate both political will and courage. The importance of peace and security could not be overestimated; Member States should both individually and collectively allocate more funds and personnel to meet the demand. Human rights held a high position on the agenda of the United Nations, he said. Latvia supported the establishment of the International Criminal Court.
Globalization: A Threat to International Cooperation and Peace? | M. Panic | Palgrave Macmillan
Since its return to independence in , Latvia has been an activist nation in increasing public involvement in the integration of society. Latvians from every occupation, ethnicity, and background had contributed their input to the improvement of living standards and social climate. By applying to be a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council in the biennium , Latvia has asserted its capacity to assume greater responsibility within the Organization.
Last week, the heads of States had shown their commitment to the principles and values of the Organization and had opened up the debate on the challenge of globalization through the promotion of an international humanitarian order. Despite these new perspectives and their historic value, there was a profound concern about the role of the United Nations. Even though there had been considerable efforts to maintain world peace, a number of conflicts persisted and spread across regions.
Regional African organizations were committed to finding solutions to the many conflicts, such as the Lome Agreement and the Lusaka Accord. There was a moral obligation to continue to act with determination and perseverance, forcing conflicting parties to compromise and take part in the culture of peace, pardon and reconciliation. In that context, his Government welcomed the recommendations of the Panel of Experts. It also welcomed the return to democracy and normality in Guinea-Bissau and stressed the importance of democracy in a new international order. He acknowledged the efforts made in the Middle East peace process -- there were great hopes that the region would one day know the meaning of peace.
He stressed the importance of the International Criminal Court -- such an institution would show the refusal of the international community to accept injustice and impunity. In order to maintain and consolidate peace, one also had to address the challenge of chronic underdevelopment. Development was in fact just another word for peace.
To end war the scourge of poverty must be addressed. Extreme poverty remained even though the resources for its eradication were plenty. Development could not be detached from the promotion and protection of human rights, the rule of law, and the proper management of public affairs, he said. Senegal would continue to consolidate the rule of law, the protection of human rights defenders and adhere to international human rights law. Today, the intellectual and material resources existed to make poverty a part of the past.
While peace and progress were real prospects, they required international cooperation on every level.
IDRISSOV, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan, said that while recognizing that global security and stability depended increasingly on economic, environmental and humanitarian aspects of development, the importance of the military and political dimensions of security should not be belittled. The elimination of weapons of mass destruction remained a matter for concern, yet the relevant international instruments -- the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons NPT , the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and of Their Destruction Chemical Weapons Convention -- had not gained universal support, thus could not be fully effective.
Those issues, he continued, were of particular importance to Kazakhstan, having been the epicentre of the cold war nuclear confrontation and having resisted the temptation to become a nuclear power. Kazakhstan had fully respected its obligations and consistently promoted its initiatives with regard to the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia.
He stressed the need to address the emerging threats of international terrorism, illegal trafficking of arms and drugs, and organized crime. Kazakhstan was seriously alarmed by the situation in Central Asia. The root of the evil was the prolonged war in Afghanistan. He urged the Security Council to seriously address the problem. He said that while it presented many benefits, globalization entailed a danger of lopsided distribution at both the inter-State and intra-State levels.
The situation regarding the future of the World Trade Organization WTO was a good example of the differences in appraising the globalization phenomenon. The WTO should be thoroughly reformed in order to really liberalize and democratize trade relations; it should not be a controlling and selectively discriminating body of world trade policy. The Bretton Woods institutions also had to be reformed to ensure their openness, democratization, competence and adequacy, and to improve cooperation with the United Nations. He stressed that environmental issues had moved from social and economic to political, particularly affecting developing countries.
Economic growth had increased pressure on all natural resources, which had created serious economic problems and poverty. Economic development should follow a different path and cease to destroy the environment. It was because of the underestimation of the environmental factor that Kazakhstan faced such ecological disasters as the Aral Sea, the Caspian Sea and the former Semipalatinsk testing ground.
He said that Kazakhstan supported the desire of the Secretary-General to revamp the Organization. It also supported the expansion of the Security Council and the conclusions reached by the Brahimi Panel, and believed that all Member States should fulfil their financial obligations under the United Nations Charter.
Through opening its economy, Chile had been able to double the size of its gross domestic product GDP within 10 years. The United Nations must strive to ensure that globalization did not produce exclusivity, with the benefits for a lucky few. A firm commitment focused especially on broadening access to the knowledge-based economy must be made to developing new forms of international cooperation.